The IPPC is a contract to prevent the introduction and spread of organisms harmful to plants and plant products and currently has 177 beneficiaries from the State. IpPC has developed phytosanitary policies and serves as both a financial intelligence unit and a source of information. Seven regional plant protection organizations have been established under the auspices of the IPPC. The North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO) is composed, for example, of the United States, Canada and Mexico, which participate respectively through APHIS, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) or Plant`s Director of Health. The European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO) is an intergovernmental organisation, also within the framework of the IPPC, responsible for cooperation in the field of plant health between 50 countries in Europe and the Mediterranean. A party may also argue, without any express provision, that a contract should be terminated if circumstances have changed dramatically. Such a change is sufficient if it is unforeseen, if it undermines the « essential basis » of a party`s approval, if it radically alters the scope of the commitments between the parties, and if the commitments still need to be fulfilled. A party may not base this claim on changes caused by its own breach of contract. Nor can this assertion be used to invalidate treaties that set or will redefine political boundaries. [16] A reservation is « a unilateral statement, however formulated or designated, made by a State upon signature, ratification, acceptance, approval or accession to a treaty, purporting to exclude or modify the legal effect of certain provisions of the treaty in their application to that State » (see Article 2 of the Vienna Convention).

The Australian Constitution allows the executive government to enter into contracts, but the practice is for treaties to be tabled in both Houses of Parliament at least 15 days before signing. Treaties are considered a source of Australian law, but sometimes require an Act of Parliament to be passed in different types. The contracts are managed and maintained by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, which stated that « the general position of Australian law is that contracts to which Australia has adhered, with the exception of those that end a state of war, are not directly and automatically incorporated into Australian law. . . .